WHAT IS A KETO DIET?

WHAT IS A KETO DIET?

Keto Diet.

A ketogenic diet or keto diet was developed for the treatment and prevention of certain diseases, but it turned out to be so effective in the fight against excess weight that it quickly became widespread as one of the effective methods of losing weight. Now it is used by athletes, entrepreneurs and Hollywood stars. It is included in the group of low-carb diets, that is, it contains a minimal amount of carbs, but a lot of fats and proteins. The daily diet of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in percentage terms looks like this: 20/55/5, respectively.

THE ESSENCE OF KETO DIETS. KETOSIS

Keto diet excludes fast and most complex carbohydrates, but it contains a considerable amount of fat. It is known that saccharides are the main source of energy for the brain, but when their intake is sharply reduced (less than 20 g per day), the body starts the ketosis process, that is, it begins to use the stored fat. This is a natural mechanism for adapting to deficiency of plant foods rich in carbohydrates. As a result, ketone bodies act as alternative fuels in the liver from fatty acids. Normally, they are synthesized exactly as much as the body needs to provide it with energy, that is, they are all utilized. Ketosis can also be caused by a full fast for several days, but it is difficult to call such an approach. The ketogenic diet in this regard is less stressful, because you do not have to starve at all.

The following signs indicate that the body goes into a state of ketosis:

  • increased fatigue and weakness at the beginning of the diet period (this is a reaction to a carbohydrate deficiency, after a few days the condition returns to normal);
  • an increase in blood β-hydroxybutyrate (beta-hydroxybutyric acid refers to ketone bodies) and a decrease in glucose (these indicators are determined by laboratory tests, normally the level of ketones in the blood should not exceed 0.5–3 mmol / l, glucose – 4.5– 5 mmol / l);
  • smell of acetone from the mouth, from urine and sweat;
  • a sharp decrease in body weight in the first week (at first water with glycogen leaves), then the weight will decrease less intensely;
  • decreased appetite.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF KETO DIETS

Like all low-carb diets, keto diet involves a complete rejection of sugar, sweets, pastries, desserts, and sweet fruits. Carbohydrates in your daily diet are minimized. In exchange, the consumption of fats, including animal origin, increases, and it is also supposed to drink plenty of ordinary water. As a rule, about 150 g of fat, 90 g of protein and no more than 50 g of carbohydrates are consumed per day.

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF KETO DIETS

With normal nutrition, the body stores fats for a rainy day, and uses carbohydrates as a fuel. But when no saccharides arrive, ketosis starts. Since the calorie content of food with keto-diet is quite high, there is no feeling of hunger, the risk of breakdowns is minimal, sharp jumps in blood glucose levels are also not observed. Due to the fact that there are a lot of fats and proteins in the diet, excess weight does not quickly go away, but even after giving up the diet, lost kilograms will not return in a short time, since there is no sharp change in caloric intake.

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KETOGENIC DIET VARIETIES

Ketodiet has several options that differ in the amount of fats, proteins and carbohydrates (in percentage terms):

  • target 65–70 / 20 / 10–15;
  • cyclic 75 / 15–20 / 5–10 on weekdays; 25/25/50 at the weekend);
  • high protein 60–65 / 30 / 5–10.
    • The target is most often used by athletes, because they need more carbohydrates (about 70–80 g). They eat them before and after training.
    • Cyclic implies a more balanced diet on the weekend, but strict restrictions in the remaining 5 days.
    • It is difficult to call ketogenic a high-protein ketodiet, because it does not start the ketosis process, however, in terms of weight loss, the proper effect is noted. In this case, almost 120 g of protein and 130 g of fat are used.

DIET BENEFITS

Practice has shown that a ketogenic diet is really effective as a means to lose weight. It allows you to lose weight without losing muscle tissue and the need to fast. This is its main advantage. It allows snacks and does not require a complete rejection of fried foods and salt. At the same time, meat can be eaten with any other permitted foods. However, it is not balanced, therefore, cannot be recommended for prolonged use. Recommendations on the caloric content of products are not given, but experts say that it is better not to exceed 5000 kcal per day, otherwise the effectiveness will be negligible.

In addition, the following positive effects were noted:

  • skin condition improvement in those who have previously suffered from acne;
  • lack of jumps in blood pressure, minimal risk of cardiovascular disease;
  • growth retardation of various types of tumors, including cancer;
  • a marked decrease in the manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, epilepsy.

DIET DEFICIENCIES

With all the positive aspects, keto-diets have their disadvantages:

  • the smell of acetone, and the more intense the weight loss, the stronger it is, but this is not considered a pathology;
  • increased irritability, insomnia, headaches and nausea when starting ketosis;
  • constipation due to fiber deficiency;
  • the risk of developing ketoacidosis (too many ketone bodies are formed, due to which the acid-base balance of the body shifts towards oxidation).
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http://medicaldaily.com

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A ketogenic diet is prohibited in the following conditions:

  • pregnancy and lactation;
  • high cholesterol;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • gastrointestinal diseases, kidney problems;
  • malfunctions of the thyroid gland;
  • porphyria.

KETO DIET: ALLOWED PRODUCTS

  • Meat, poultry, fish and seafood without fat restrictions.
  • Mushrooms.
  • Unrefined vegetable oils, butter, animal fat, mayonnaise and other sauces, but without sugar and starch in the composition.
  • Nuts, seeds.
  • Green vegetables, greens, unsweetened fruits, citrus fruits.
  • High fat dairy products.
  • Cheeses
  • The eggs.
  • Mineral water, tea, decaffeinated coffee.
  • Protein shakes for sports nutrition.

PROHIBITED PRODUCTS

  • Vegetables with a high content of starch (potatoes, carrots or other root crops).
  • Sweet fruits (bananas, figs, dates, persimmons, grapes, apricots).
  • Sugar, desserts, pastries, flour products, cereals.
  • Legumes.
  • Packaged juice packs.
  • Caffeine, alcohol.

A SAMPLE MENU OF KETO DIETS FOR A WEEK FOR MEN

1 day

  • Breakfast: omelet, beef chop.
  • Lunch: a protein shake.
  • Lunch: fish baked with vegetables, brown rice or buckwheat.
  • Snack: cottage cheese with nuts or seeds (pumpkin, sunflower).
  • Dinner: chicken fillet (boiled), vegetable salad seasoned with olive oil.

2 day

  • Breakfast: brown rice, whole grain bread, avocado.
  • Second breakfast: soup with meat, meatballs, vegetable salad.
  • Lunch: fat cottage cheese, apple.
  • Snack: seafood, cheese.
  • Dinner: fermented baked milk, yogurt (without fillers) or high fat kefir.

3 day

  • Breakfast: scrambled eggs with ham, whole grain bread, butter.
  • Second breakfast: 2 eggs, cheese.
  • Lunch: chicken soup, steak, vegetable salad.
  • Snack: yogurt (without fillers).
  • Dinner: mushrooms baked with cheese, vegetable salad seasoned with sour cream.

4 day

  • Breakfast: fish cutlets, vegetable salad, yogurt (without fillers).
  • Second breakfast: cottage cheese with nuts.
  • Lunch: borsch, salad with meat or eggs, seasoned with mayonnaise without sugar and starch.
  • Snack: a protein shake.
  • Dinner: fish, baked with asparagus, cheese.

5 day

  • Breakfast: boiled eggs (boiled or soft-boiled), boiled chicken fillet, vegetable salad with butter.
  • Second breakfast: whole grain breads, cheese.
  • Lunch: mashed soup with boiled sausage, meat salad.
  • Snack: apples or pears (unsweetened).
  • Dinner: baked fish, salad of green vegetables.

6 day

  • Breakfast: scrambled eggs, cheese.
  • Lunch: 2 oranges.
  • Lunch: ear, grilled vegetables, chicken cutlets.
  • Snack: a protein shake.
  • Dinner: boiled chicken fillet, seafood (salad).

7 day

  • Breakfast: a loaf of peanut butter, scrambled eggs with herbs and cheese.
  • Second breakfast: fatty cottage cheese with nuts.
  • Lunch: chicken broth soup, beef patties, vegetable salad.
  • Snack: fat yogurt without fillers.
  • Dinner: boiled fish, grilled vegetables.

A SAMPLE MENU OF KETO DIETS FOR A WEEK FOR WOMEN

1 day

  • Breakfast: scrambled eggs, vegetable salad with the addition of meat or boiled sausage.
  • Second breakfast: cheese, apple.
  • Lunch: fatty meat broth, brown rice with vegetables.
  • Snack: yogurt without fillers.
  • Dinner: red fish baked with vegetables.

2 day

  • Breakfast: fish zrazy, bread with ham.
  • Second breakfast: avocado with sesame seeds or flax seeds.
  • Lunch: borsch, fishcake, vegetables.
  • Snack: fermented baked milk.
  • Dinner: entrecote, greens.

3 day

  • Breakfast: ham omelet, fresh vegetable salad.
  • Second breakfast: cottage cheese with nuts.
  • Lunch: chicken stock, rabbit meat, salad.
  • Snack: yogurt or kefir.
  • Dinner: zucchini pancakes, baked chicken fillet.

4 day

  • Breakfast: meat salad (meat, boiled eggs, vegetables).
  • Second breakfast: cheese.
  • Lunch: fish soup, meatballs, vegetable salad.
  • Snack: fermented baked milk.
  • Dinner: liver pate, green vegetable salad seasoned with olive oil.

5 day

  • Breakfast: turkey, peanut butter bread.
  • Second breakfast: nuts.
  • Lunch: mashed soup, fish cakes.
  • Snack: fermented baked milk.
  • Dinner: mushrooms, baked with cheese, vegetables.

6 day

  • Breakfast: cheesecakes, apple.
  • Second breakfast: avocado.
  • Lunch: chicken stock, green vegetable salad seasoned with sour cream or fat yogurt.
  • Snack: fermented baked milk.
  • Dinner: chicken sausages, cucumbers.

7 day

  • Breakfast: scrambled eggs, bread, avocado and ham.
  • Second breakfast: cheese.
  • Lunch: mashed soup with mushrooms, chicken fillet, grilled vegetables.
  • Snack: yogurt.
  • Dinner: cabbage rolls.

If basic meals are not enough, you can use a handful of nuts or pumpkin seeds, sunflowers, 90% dark chocolate, and a sugar-free milk shake as a snack.

KETOGENIC DIET FAQ

WHAT IS KETOGRIPP?

Some people may initially experience fatigue, insomnia, irritability, decreased attention, and intestinal discomfort. These symptoms are called ketogripp, and they are associated with the launch of ketosis. Usually they go away after a few days. To alleviate the condition, it is recommended to switch to a keto diet not immediately, but to reduce the level of carbohydrate intake gradually.

CAN SEIZURES OCCUR WITH KETO-DIET?

This is not excluded, because it changes the water and mineral balance. To prevent the occurrence of this unpleasant phenomenon, mineral supplements should be taken: sodium, potassium and magnesium.

HOW MUCH PROTEIN TO EAT?

The proportion of protein in the diet should not exceed 35%, otherwise insulin may increase and ketones will decrease.

CAN YOU EAT CARBOHYDRATES AT ALL?

It is very important to significantly reduce carbohydrate intake at the beginning of the course, but after 2-3 months you can afford some dessert, and then return to the diet.

A ketogenic diet can be observed for a long time, with the right approach and the absence of chronic diseases of the digestive system, it will only be of benefit, but if side effects persist for a long period, it is better to refuse it and consult a doctor.

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